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The Economist: "Be more ..libre"

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The Economist: "Be more ..libre"

Messaggio Da mosquito il Sab 16 Mag 2015 - 2:41



http://www.martinoticias.com/content/eeuu-cuba-reformas-economist-editorial/94343.html


La revista británica The Economist dice en un editorial que,
por debajo de toda la afabilidad de las visitas y conversaciones que se han sucedido desde el anuncio de que Cuba y Estados Unidos pondrían fin a su larga guerra fría,
hay un sustrato de inconformidad.




Tras medio siglo culpando al embargo estadounidense por todos los males de la isla, los revolucionarios cubanos ahora se resisten al capitalismo americano por miedo a ser arrollados, observa el editorial, y el resultado para los cubanos de a pie no es demasiado cambio, sino muy poco, con más pobreza que en muchos países vecinos y los balseros huyendo hacia la Florida.

Y aunque algunas cosas están cambiando con la emergencia de un pequeño sector privado, la revista señala que para que los cubanos se beneficien de la apertura con Estados Unidos, los gobernantes de la isla tendrán que reformar el sistema con más celeridad y audacia que hasta ahora.

Para empezar, podrían abrir muchos más sectores a la empresa privada, y en lugar de publicar una "lista positiva" de las actividades permitidas, reservarse sólo algunas y autorizar todas las demás, incluyendo la medicina, la arquitectura, la enseñanza y la abogacía, cuyos profesionales podrían atender las demandas de los "nuevos burgueses".

Podrían, asimismo, liberalizar los mercados mayoristas y evitar la escasez generada por las compras de insumos que tienen que hacer los emprendedores en los mismos mercados donde compra la ciudadanía.

The Economist apunta que los inversores extranjeros, a pesar de una nueva ley, se topan con que aún deben contratar a sus trabajadores a través de agencias estatales que remuneran a los contratados con salarios miserables; que los insumos importados deben pasar a través de burocráticas empresas gubernamentales; y que los códigos legales son vagos y su aplicación, arbitraria.


"The Economist": Se necesita una transformación más rápida de la economía.
Pero la publicación discurre que nadie sabe cuánto de este zarzal están dispuestos a desbrozar Raúl Castro y otros añosos líderes de la revolución, "para quienes reforma y privatización son palabras obscenas inspiradas por 'los yanquis'".

Aunque el régimen mira a China y Vietnam, donde los gobiernos comunistas han abrazado el capitalismo sin perder el poder, anda con pies de plomo, temeroso de que si cede demasiado control económico, pueda ser arrasado como sus similares de Europa del Este.

Sin embargo, concluye diciendo The Economist, el mayor riesgo sería simplemente seguir entretenidos remendando un sistema que mantiene a los cubanos sumidos en la pobreza, en estos tiempos en los que sus aspiraciones están creciendo.

_________________
"..non dovete esssere egoisti e pensare con la pinguita
dovete pensare il bene del populo cubano.."


i dettagli, gli possiamo lasciare a la fantasia di ognuno ..
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Re: The Economist: "Be more ..libre"

Messaggio Da mosquito il Sab 16 Mag 2015 - 2:45


http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21651216-transformation-economy-needs-happen-much-faster-be-more-libre


Be more libre

The transformation of the economy needs to happen much faster


IT HAS been five months since Cuba and the United States announced that they would end their long cold war, but Cuba’s president, Raúl Castro, is still basking in the afterglow. On his way home from Russia this week he stopped off at the Vatican to see the pope, and said he might return to the Catholic faith. Later François Hollande paid the first-ever visit to Cuba by a French president; he was granted an audience with Fidel Castro, Raúl’s ailing brother, who led the revolution in 1959 and ruled until 2008.

But beneath the bonhomie lies unease. Cuba’s creaky revolutionaries spent half a century blaming the American embargo for all the island’s woes. Now they resist American capitalism for fear of being overrun. The result for most ordinary Cubans is not too much change but too little (see article). The island is poorer than many of its neighbours. Doctors earn just $60 a month—after a 150% pay rise. Food and other basics are in short supply. Boat people still flee to Florida’s shores.


Cuba deserves a proper democracy and a robust market-based economy. Sadly, that is unlikely to happen soon. Some things are changing. Private guesthouses, restaurants, barber shops and the like have begun to flourish, creating the kernel of an entrepreneurial middle class. But if Cubans are to benefit from the opening with America, their rulers need to reform more boldly and quickly than they have done so far.


Where to start? Cuba should begin by opening up many more sectors to private enterprise. Currently, Cubans can be “self-employed” in 201 activities (including reading Tarot cards), but few that require a university degree. In place of a “positive list” of permitted private activities, the government should publish a negative one that reserves just a few for the state. All others would then be open to private initiative, including professions such as architecture, medicine, education and the law. The new bourgeois are potential customers for professional services; catering to that demand would in turn expand the middle class.

Liberalisation is urgent in wholesale markets. Today enterprises such as restaurants are forced to buy supplies from state-run supermarkets where ordinary people shop, which exacerbates shortages. This undermines popular support for the emerging private sector.

The climate for foreign investment must also improve. Cuba woos foreign investors for the expertise, jobs and currency they bring, but treats them shabbily. Under a supposedly friendly new law, they must still recruit workers through state agencies, to which they pay hard currency; the agencies then pay out miserly salaries in pesos. Imported inputs pass through bureaucratic state-run enterprises. Worst of all, legal codes are vague and their application is arbitrary. In recent years several foreign businessmen have been imprisoned (and later released) with little explanation.

How much of this thicket Mr Castro is prepared to clear away is uncertain. The party’s leadership has hinted that its congress would strengthen the National Assembly, a rubber-stamp body. A proper legislature that could write laws would give security to enterprise. Cuba is also bracing for a painful currency unification, which will end a huge subsidy to state companies (see article).

For many of the revolution’s ageing leaders reform and privatisation are yanqui-inspired dirty words. The regime looks to China and Vietnam, where communist governments have embraced capitalism without yielding power. The Cuban communists are wary: they fear that, if they give up too much economic control, they will be obliterated just like the communists of eastern Europe. Yet the bigger risk would be merely to tinker with a system that keeps Cubans poor at a time when their aspirations are rising.

_________________
"..non dovete esssere egoisti e pensare con la pinguita
dovete pensare il bene del populo cubano.."


i dettagli, gli possiamo lasciare a la fantasia di ognuno ..
avatar
mosquito
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Messaggi : 16340
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Carattere : el VIEJO puttaniere

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